Banbhore is an ancient fortified city dating to the first century B.C. It is located in what is now Sindh, in Pakistan. Occupied by the Muslims between the 8th and 13th centuries A.D., the city was then abandoned until the remains of a mosque were discovered in 1960. The site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2004.

Despite its importance, the site of Banbhore has never been the subject of a detailed survey. In view of forthcoming excavations, it was felt necessary to accurately locate the main monuments together with sectors of particular archaeological interest. This study was undertaken by Iconem and intended to assist the archaeologists to establish an excavation strategy and position test trenches.


Low altitude aerial photography of the entire city enabled the construction of a very large orthophotograph* which made possible the location of all structures visible on the surface. In addition, an extremely accurate DTM (Digital Terrain Model) was produced in order to visualise the distribution of micro-relief, corresponding to collapsed buildings, across the site. On the basis of these documents, an overall interpretation of the organisation of the city could be constructed.

*Broadly speaking, an orthophotograph is an image in which the effect of perspective has been eliminated.